Second Primary Cancers After Liver, Gallbladder and Bile Duct Cancers, and These Cancers as Second Primary Cancers

Second primary cancers (SPCs) are important clinically as they may negatively influence patient survival and they may reveal about therapeutic side effects and general causes of cancer. Population-based literature concerning SPCs after hepatobiliary cancers is limited and, in this study, we assess risks of SPCs after hepatocellular cancer (HCC), and cancers of the gallbladder, bile ducts and ampulla of Vater. In reverse order, we consider the risk of hepatobiliary cancers as SPCs after any cancer. We identified 9997 primary HCCs, 1365 gallbladder cancers and 4721 bile duct cancers. After HCC, risks of four SPCs were increased: gallbladder (SIR = 4.38; 95% confidence interval 1.87-8.67), thyroid (4.13; 1.30-9.70), kidney (2.92; 1.66-4.47) and squamous cell skin (1.55; 1.02-2.26) cancers. The results suggested that HCC is associated with two types of SPC, one related to shared environmental risk factors, such as alcohol, exemplified by upper aerodigestive tract and esophageal cancer, and the other related to immune dysfunction, exemplified by squamous cell skin cancer. SPCs associated with gallbladder and bile duct cancers suggest predisposition to mutations in the mismatch repair gene MLH1.

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